Gammage, P.A. et. al. (2017) Trends in Genetics. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29179920
Mitochondrial DNA has increased in prominence in both biology and medicine as a major player for various diseases. Attempts to alter the genetic information of mitochondria have made significant advances using zinc finger and TALEN nucleases. These protein only nucleases are easily delivered into the mitochondria through existing machinery. While CRISPR has revolutionized genome editing, it is struggling in mitochondria due to the lack of an endogenous mechanism for nucleic acid transport into the mitochondria, preventing its adoption.